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Framing Loss and Damage

"Parties recognise the importance of averting, minimising and addressing loss and damage associated with the adverse effects of climate change, including extreme weather events and slow onset events, and the role of sustainable development in reducing the risk of loss and damage” - Paris Agreement (article 8)

Forest Fires

Since the adoption of the Warsaw International Mechanism in 2013, Loss and Damage (L&D) has commanded the attention of an increasingly wide spectrum of scientific disciplines, policy making arenas and civil society organisations. 

Still, many challenges remain for the scientific and policy communities regarding how to conceptualise, measure and govern L&D from extreme events and slow onset events. This includes differences between economic and non-economic forms of impact, as well as how L&D is disproportionately experienced by different social groups. As a result, the L&D policy space remains a contested space.

Through the DICE project, we aim to systematically assess how L&D can be conceptualised and measured, and what implications this may have for governance mechanisms for managing L&D, including the role of the science of attribution.

We also aim to better understand how L&D from extreme events can be meaningfully situated within the broader sustainable development agenda, including the SDGs, as highlighted in Article 8 of the Paris Agreement.

Frameworks of L&D

DICE aims to take stock and systematically evaluate existing and possible theoretical frameworks for conceptualizing L&D, in particular around the following questions:

  • What concepts of L&D currently exist, and how do they differ from each other? What implications do these differences have for measurement and policy?
  • What approaches to L&D are possible that have not yet been considered, and how do these compare to the current mainstream perspectives?
  • How can L&D be conceptualized in a way that is “comprehensive, integrated and coherent”, as stated in the Warsaw International Mechanism?

The Future

DICE aims to help shape the future trajectories of L&D research and policy, in particular around the following questions:

  • What are the most pressing questions in need of further investigation in L&D research?
  • What science-society pathways can help connect L&D scholarship with improved governance practice?
  • Which social groups may benefit from L&D science, and how can the outcomes of L&D research reach these groups?


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